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Semiconductor Manufacturing

Wafer to Wafer Permanent Bonding Comparison 2018

Product code
EUR 6990
Automotive & Mobility Industrial Mobile & Consumer
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Wafer bonding structure, process and cost analysis for CMOS image sensors, inertial, pressure and radio-frequency MEMS devices and LEDs.

Over the years, permanent wafer bonding has been a game changer for several applications in the semiconductor world. In radio-frequency (RF) applications, MEMS, and even for CMOS image sensors (CIS), it has reduced the surface area occupied and improved performance hugely. But depending on the application or the goal of the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), the technology can differ. For example, wafer bonding processes is used to reduce system footprints and signal losses by coupling the MEMS area with the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) controller. In this report, we will go through the main permanent wafer bonding technologies to see the pros and the cons of each.

Among these technologies, we have identified two main groups. One, bonding wafers without intermediate layers, includes fusion, copper-copper hybrid and anodic bonding approaches. The second group involves bonding wafers with intermediate layers using an insulator like a glass frit, or a metal in eutectic and thermocompression approaches. In this report, we show examples of each wafer bonding approach in different applications. We analyze and compare each wafer bonding process type to show the benefit in terms of cost and space used.

By switching from glass frit bonding to metal bonding thermo-compression, a manufacturer could reduce component area by up to 30%, reclaiming lost space around the active surface and cutting cost. However, some bonding technologies are currently used only in some market segments. For example, hybrid copper-copper bonding is only used in CIS and glass frit technology is found only in products in automotive and some consumer MEMS applications.

In the comparison, we have analyzed each component’s wafer bonding process, including component dimensions, cost and manufacturing approach. We provide an overview of technology costs and manufacturer choices by application and range. We offer buyers and device manufacturers a unique possibility of understanding permanent wafer bonding technology, evolution, and comparing process costs.




Bonding and Lithography Equipment Market for More than Moore Devices – by Yole Développement

More than Moore devices fueled by megatrend applications will strongly drive the growth of the lithography, permanent bonding, and temporary bonding and debonding equipment market.

Bundle offer possible for the Wafer to Wafer Permanent Bonding Comparison 2018 Report by System Plus Consulting, contact us for more information.


This report is a research update for bonding and lithography equipment markets in the Moore Than Moore (MtM) area (including advanced packaging, MEMS & sensors, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) and power applications)


This report’s objectives include:

  • Furnish an overview of bonding and lithography technological trends and identify manufacturing challenges
  • Benchmark of the equipment toolbox used for MtM devices
  • Offer 2017-2023 market metrics in volume and value at equipment levels for bonding and lithography technologies for MtM applications
  • Discuss technology processes, specifications, and value chains
  • Describe the competitive landscape and identify key players in technology development and manufacturing

Get more here

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Permanent Wafer Bonding Technology

Permanent Wafer Bonding Definitions and Process Descriptions

  • Without intermediate layer
    • Fusion bonding
      • CMOS image sensor
      • MEMS inertial sensor
    • Cu-Cu/Oxide hybrid bonding
      • CMOS image sensor
    • Anodic bonding
      • MEMS pressure sensor
  • With intermediate layer
    • Glass frit
      • MEMS pressure sensor
      • MEMS inertial sensor
    • Adhesive bonding
      • MEMS micro mirror
    • Eutectic bonding
      • MEMS inertial sensor
      • Microbolometer
      • LED
    • Thermo-compression bonding
      • MEMS RF
      • MEMS inertial sensor

Physical Comparison

Cost Comparison


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