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CSP LED Lighting Modules

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6 490 EUR
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Chip-scale packages (CSPs) are new to the LED industry, but are the mainstay of the traditional semiconductor industry, where they improve reliability, thermal management and enable smaller packages.

CSP LEDs can be less than a tenth of the size of high and middle power LEDs, increasing power density and simplifying integration into final products. This new architecture can also lower thermal resistance, improve reliability and widen viewing angles compared to other traditional packages.

However, there are also several challenges to overcome at the device manufacturing and module integration levels. These include color uniformity, chemical stability, given there is little to no sealing off from the external environment, and control of optical properties like the radiation pattern. In this context, Yole Développement estimates that CSP LED modules represented less than 1% of the LED module business in 2016. However, with strong potential in multiple applications and the lighting industry getting experience with integrating such technology, we forecast a market share of nearly 6% by 2021.

This report provides a comprehensive analysis of CSP LED devices, with analyses including: chip and package technology, manufacturing processes, related costs/prices, industry and market trends. The report details deeply analyses CSP LED lighting module design, with focuses including: optical design, thermal and electrical management and precautions for CSP LED integration.

LED lighting module revenue share in 2021 - Yole Développement


CSP LEDs add value through power density offered from a small surface. The first targeted application was smartphone flashes. As smartphones get thinner and add functions, so too must integrated components/modules.

The small form factor and wide beam angle of CSP LEDs have also driven their use in TV backlighting units. Wide beam angles mean the pitch between LEDs can be larger, reducing the number of devices needed and in turn lowering backlight cost.

But CSP LEDs are also a means to develop new functions in lighting products. Some general lighting applications are likely to adopt these light sources to reduce the cost of the lamp/luminaire. Their small size enables LED clusters, similar to chip-on-board (COB) LED modules but with more functionality. CSP LED clusters promise tunable white, human centric light (HCL), intended to promote a person’s well-being, mood and health, and others smart lighting functions.

Last but not least, high luminance and uniformity will mean CSP LEDs enter automotive headlamp applications, which requires high intensity and beam shape control. New developments in matrix headlamps will include CSP LEDs to increase matrix resolution, enhance driver vision and improve Advanced Front Light Systems (AFLS) in combination with cameras. In this report, Yole Développement maps the CSP LED application landscape. It analyses CSP LED lighting module performance in general lighting applications, identifying opportunities, describing case studies, and comparing positioning against other module technologies.



CSP LED technology eliminates some package assembly and die attach stages. This is likely to benefit to LED chip manufacturers, who can develop packages and supply them directly to LED module manufacturers more easily, bypassing their traditional customers, and so increasing their profits. Vertically integrated LED manufacturers can also decrease their packaging costs. However, adopting the technology requires development of new expertise, modifying the traditional packaging landscape. For example, phosphor and encapsulant deposition processes will move from dispensing to phosphor sheet/film deposition or molding. This evolution affects equipment and material suppliers, who have to develop new solutions.

Operationally, Lumileds was the first company to commercialize LEDs in CSP format in 2013. The company was rapidly followed by several other players, mostly Taiwanese. But some others, like Osram, still have doubts about the necessity of such technology, and instead are positioned toward traditional middle and high power LEDs, including COBs.

This debate is also relevant at the LED module level, where CSPs cause some difficulties. For example, during PCB design, special care should be given to copper traces and solder masks for optimum performance. Some critical properties, like their small soldering surfaces and sideways light emission, may impact module integration. And while the benefits of CSP LEDs are not yet clear for them, they question the real opportunity of this solution.

This report provides insights into the changes in manufacturing and integration processes CSP LEDs bring, and potential consequences on the supply/value chain. Additionally, it analyses real opportunities for such technologies based on simulations and case studies.

Comparison between standard COB and CSP LED module manufacturing chain - Yole Développement


Understand CSP LED technology:

  • Differences from other packages
  • Impact on manufacturing processes
  • Potential for cost reduction

Understand changes in system design and integration rules:

  • Impact on optical design
  • Impact on thermal management
  • Impact on electrical management

Understand performances in applications:

  • Positioning of CSP LEDs compared to mid-power, high-power LEDs and COB LED modules
  • Opportunities for CSP LEDs in applications

Understand competitive landscape and supply chain:

  • Identify key players
  • Impact on the LED supply chain
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About the authors of the report   P5


Report objectives                P6


Companies cited in this report      P7


Glossary                    P8


Methodology                P9


Executive summary                P10


Status of the LED industry and recent trends    P40

Status of the LED industry including
> Introduction – Segmentation of packaged LEDs
> History of the LED industry
> Packaged LED revenue forecast – Split by application
> 2015 and 2016 in a nutshell
> Future trends
> LED market trends

Recent trends in the LED industry

> Overview
> Product diversification (Level 1)
> Application diversification – Automotive lighting
> Product diversification (Level 2) – UV LEDs
> Vertical integration – LED module
> Conclusion


CSP LED application landscape     P61

General lighting
Automotive lighting


CSP LED devices                P68

Introduction to CSP LED devices
> Definition
> Benefits

CSP LED device family description
> Introduction
> Size criterion
> Power density criterion
> CSP or not CSP?
> Power criterion

CSP LED device technology
> Differences from other packages
> CSP LED structures
> CSP LEDs in LED package proliferation
> Flip Chip CSP LEDs vs high power-type LEDs
> Wafer Level CSP LEDs vs high power-type LEDs
> Vertical thin film CSP LEDs vs high power-type LEDs
> Flip Chip packaged CSP LEDs vs high power-type LEDs

CSP LED device manufacturing process
> Conventional LED manufacturing process
> Flip Chip CSP LED manufacturing process
> Wafer Level CSP LED manufacturing process
> CSP LEDs vs conventional LEDs
> Impact on supply/value chain

CSP LED device cost/price
> Potential for cost reduction
> The case of CSP architecture for low and middle power LEDs
> The case of CSP architecture for high power LEDs
> Price positioning of CSP LEDs vs. traditional LEDs
> Price positioning of CSP LED modules vs. traditional modules

CSP LED device industry
> Key players identified
> Highlights of US and European Players
> Highlights of Japanese Players
> Highlights of Korean Players
> Highlights of Taiwanese and Chinese Players
> Trends – Flow chart comparison between standard, CSP and COB LEDs

CSP LED market
> CSP LED market volume (2012 – 2021)








CSP LED lighting module            P112

Objectives, methodology and synthesis
> From device characteristics to performance in applications
> System design and performance assessment
> Impact of CSP LED device on system/module design
> CSP LED system/module performance in application

Definition and types of LED lighting modules
> Definitions
> LED module in the overall LED value chain
> The different types of LED modules – Taxonomy
> The different types of LED modules – Positioning

Main functions in LED lighting modules
> System structure
> Parameter interdependence

Optical design of CSP LED lighting modules
> Optical management inside LED devices
> CSP LED optical behavior
> Sideways light emission of a package-free CSP LED device
> Influence of CSP LED package on emission profile
> Light emission profile
> Light Emitting Surface (LES) and beam angle
> Optical management in the application
> Luminance control
> Optical integration – Single LED and arrays
> Shadowing effect in close pack arrangements
> Main consequences and opportunities of the optical properties of CSP LEDs

Thermal management of CSP LED lighting modules
> Why is thermal management required for LED systems?
> Importance of thermal management for LED reliability
> Thermal path inside the CSP LEDs
> CSP thermal architecture compared to standard LEDs
> Thermal resistance of CSP LEDs
> Maximal junction temperature of CSP LEDs
> Influence parameters on thermal resistance
> Thermal resistance in the application
> Reliability of CSP LEDs compare to traditional LED components
> Major trends in thermal management
> Main consequences and opportunities arising from the thermal properties of CSP LEDs

Electrical management of CSP LED lighting modules
> Electrical behavior
> Resistive behavior
> Binning distribution
> Multiple LED arrangements
> LED module operating window
> LED balancing circuit (electrical behavior)
> Electrical Static Discharge (ESD) and Electrical Over Stress (EOS)
> Electrical Static Discharge (ESD) protection in LED package
> Electrical Static Discharge (ESD) protection in LED global system
> Electrical management – Minimal spacing
> Main consequences and opportunities of the electrical properties of CSP LEDs

Precautions for CSP LED integration into modules
> Handling precautions
> PCB design for optimal performance
> Solder recommendations
> Reflow process for CSP LEDs

CSP LED lighting module performance in applications
> Is a CSP a cost effective high power LED or a super mid power LED?
> CSP LEDs in lighting products – Positioning
> CSP LEDs in lighting products – Opportunities
> Opportunities for accent lighting
> Cost value for accent lighting
> Opportunities for spot light integration
> Opportunities for global indoor application (i.e.: general lighting)
> Integration in general lighting applications – Pros and cons
> Integration in general lighting applications – Case studies
> Spectrum control with CSP LEDs
> CSP LED diversity
> The different types of LED modules – Positioning
> CSP LED module positioning vs other technologies
> Market trends – Share of CSP LED module revenue (2016 vs. 2021)


Conclusion                P208

Appendix – About Yole Développement  P211

Appendix – About PISEO                P230

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